Effect of dietary available phosphorus and phytase on production performance of old laying hens and tibia bone quality

Document Type : Nutrition - Hygiene


Department of Animal and Poultry Health and Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Background: Old laying hens are more prone to dietary calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) deficiencies as  they absorb Ca and P less efficiently than younger hens. OBJECTIVES: In a 2×2 factorial design, the influence of diets with two levels of available phosphorus (AP) and phytase enzyme on the laying performance, egg quality and tibia bone characteristics of laying hens at their late 2nd production phase was studied. METHODS: The experiment used four treatments of 20 Hy-Line W36 hens of 140 weeks old. Treatments 1 and 2 received a 3.5 g kg-1 AP diet while Treatments 3 and 4 received a 2.5 g kg-1 AP diet for 12 weeks. Treatments 2 and 4 received 250 FTU kg-1 phytase in their diet. Laying performance, egg weight, shell weight and shell thickness were measured. On the last day of the experiment, all birds were weighed and blood samples were collected for serum Ca and P measurements. Ten birds from each treatment were sacrificed and both tibiae were excised, defatted, weighed and ashed for Ca and P contents, cortical thickness and bone breaking strength measurements. RESULTS: Hens fed with 2.5 g kg-1 AP diet without enzyme had the lowest body weight gain, serum P, tibia cortical thickness and tibia breaking strength among the treatments (p<0.05). Phytase enhanced body weight gain, egg shell thickness, serum P, tibia weight/body weight and tibia ash/body weight ratios, tibia cortical thickness and breaking strength, particularly in  birds receiving 2.5 g kg-1 AP diet (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Phytase may improve bone quality and strength of hens  in the late 2nd laying period.


Article Title [Persian]

گروه بهداشت و تغذیه دام طیور، دانشکده دامپزشکی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

Authors [Persian]

  • بهزاد منصوری
  • مهرداد مدیر صانعی
گروه بهداشت و تغذیه دام طیور، دانشکده دامپزشکی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران
Abstract [Persian]

زمینه مطالعه:  مرغان تخم‌گذار مسن نسبت به کمبود کلسیم و فسفر به‌علت کاهش قدرت جذبی روده و کاهش سرعت جذب کلسیم و فسفر نسبت به مرغان جوان حساس‌ترند. هدف: در طرح فاکتوریل 2×2، تأثیر جیره‌های با دو سطح فسفر در دسترس و به همراه آنزیم فیتاز بر عملکرد تخمگذاری، کیفیت تخم‌مرغ و خصوصیات درشت‌نی مرغان تخم‌گذار در اواخر دوره دوم تخمگذاری مطالعه شد. روش‌کار: این آزمایش دارای چهار تیمار بیست مرغ تخم‌گذار نژاد W36 Hy-Line با سن 140 هفته بود. تیمارهای 1 و 2 جیره حاوی g/kg 5/3 فسفر در دسترس و تیمارهای 3 و 4 جیره حاوی g/kg 5/2 فسفر در دسترس بود. تیمارهای 2 و 4 به همراه جیره خود آنزیم فیتاز به مقدار 250 واحد آنزیمی به ازای هر کیلوگرم خوراک دریافت کردند. عملکرد تخم‌گذاری، وزن تخم‌مرغ، وزن  و ضخامت پوسته اندازه‌گیری‌شده در آخرین روز آزمایش تمام پرندگان وزن شد. نمونه خون از ورید بالی جهت تعیین مقدار کلسیم و فسفر سرم تهیه شد. سپس، از هر تیمار ده پرنده کشته و استخوان درشت‌نی هر دو پا جدا، چربی‌گیری و وزن شد. به‌منظور اندازه‌گیری میزان خاکستر، کلسیم و فسفر، ضخامت کورتکس و میزان استحکام استخوان استفاده شد. نتایج: مرغانی که جیره حاوی g/kg 5/2 فسفر در دسترس دریافت کردند وزن‌گیری کمتر، فسفر سرمی پایین‌تر، ضخامت کورتکس درشت‌نی کمتر و استحکام کمتری در برابر شکست استخوان داشتند. در عین حال تخم‌مرغ شکسته بیشتری تولید کردند. فیتاز باعث بهبود وزن‌گیری، ضخامت پوسته تخم‌مرغ، افزایش فسفر سرم، وزن نسبی درشت‌نی و خاکستر درشت‌نی به وزن بدن، ضخامت کورتکس و استحکام استخوان در برابر شکست به‌خصوص در مرغانی که دارای جیره g/kg 5/2 فسفر در دسترس شد. نتیجه‌گیری‌‌نهایی: آنزیم فیتاز باعث ارتقای کیفیت و استحکام استخوان در مرغان تخم‌گذار در اواخر دوره دوم تولید شد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • فسفر در دسترس
  • کیفیت استخوان
  • مرغ تخمگذار
  • فیتاز
Adeola, O., Sands, J.S. (2003) Does supplemental dietary microbial phytase improve amino acid utilization? A perspective that it does not. J Anim Sci. 81: 78-85.
Ahmadi, H., Rodehutscord, M. (2012) A meta-analysis of responses to dietary nonphytate phosphorus and phytase in laying hens. Poult Sci. 912: 2072–2078.
Bar, A., Razaphkovsky, V., Vax, E. (2002) Re-evaluation of calcium and phosphorus requirements in aged laying hens. Br Poult Sci. 43: 261–269
Boling, S.D., Douglas, M.W., Johnson, M.L., Wang, X., Parsons, C.M., Koelkebeck, K.W., Zimmerman, R.A. (2000) The effects of dietary available phosphorus levels and phytase on performance of young and older laying hens. Poult Sci. 79: 224-230.
Ceylan, N., Scheideler, S.E., Stilborn, H.L. (2003)  High available phosphorus corn and phytase in layer diets. Poult Sci. 82: 789-795.
Cheryan, M. (1980) Phytic acid interactions in food systems. CRC Crit. Rev Food Sci Nutr. 13: 297–335.
Clark, W.D., Cox, W.R., Silversides, F.G. (2008) Bone fracture incidence in end-of-lay high-producing, noncommercial laying hens identified using radiographs. Poult Sci. 87: 1964-1970.
Das, S.N., Kumar, V., Chatterjee, S., Singh, J., Agrawala, S.K. (2004) Effect of MagaCal and commercial phytase supplementation on blood and bone mineral content of layer hens. Phytomedica. 5: 41-45.
Francesch, M., Broz, J., Brufau, J. (2005)  Effects of an experimental phytase on performance, egg quality, tibia ash content and phosphorus bioavailability in laying hens fed on corn- or barley-based diets. Br Poult Sci. 46: 340-348.
Gordon, R., Bryant, M.M., Roland, D.A. (2009) Performance and profitability of second-cycle laying hens as influenced by body weight and body weight reduction during molt. J Appl Poult Res. 18: 223-231.
Hall, L.E., Shirley R.B., Bakalli R.I., Aggrey S.E., Pesti G.M., Edwards H.M.Jr. (2003) Power of two methods for the estimation of bone ash of broilers. Poult Sci. 82: 414-418.
Hartel, H. (1990) Evaluation of the dietary interaction of calcium and phosphorus in the high producing laying hen. Br Poult Sci. 31: 473-494.
Hassanien, H.H.M., Sanaa, H.M.E. (2011) Comparison difference levels of phytase enzyme supplementation on laying hen performance, egg quality and some blood parameters. Asian J Poult Sci. 5: 77-85.
Hughes, A.L., Dahiya, J.P., Wyatt, C.L., Classen, H.L. (2008) The efficacy of quantum phytase in a forty-week production trial using white leghorn laying hens fed corn-soybean meal-based diets. Poult Sci. 87: 1156-1161.
Hughes, A.L., Dahiya, J.P., Wyatt, C.L., Classen, H.L. (2009)  Effect of Quantum phytase on nutrient digestibility and bone ash in White Leghorn laying hens fed maize-soybean meal-based diets. Poult Sci. 88: 1191-1198.
Jendral M.J., Korver D.R., Church J.S., Feddes J.J.R. (2008) Bone mineral density and breaking strength of white leghorns housed in conventional, modified, and commercially available colony  battery cages . Poult Sci. 87: 828-837.
Jongbloed, A.W., Lenis, N.P. (1998) Environmental concerns about animal manure. J Anim Sci. 76: 2641-2648.
Junqueira, O.M., da Silva Filardi, R., Ligeiro, E.C., Casartelli, E.M., Sgavioli, S., Assuena, V., Duarte, K.F., de Laurentiz, A.C. (2010) Technical and economical evaluation of the nutritional matrix of phytase enzyme diets with sunflower meal for laying hens.  Rev Bras Zootecn. 39: 2200-2206.
Keshavarz, K. (2000) Nonphytate phosphorus requirement of laying hens with and without phytase on a phase feeding program. Poult Sci. 79: 748–763.
Kies, A.K., Van Hemert, K.H.F. and Sauer, W. C. (2001) Effect of phytase on protein and amino acid digestibility and energy utilization. World Poult Sci J. 57: 109-125.
Kozlowski, K., Jeroch, H.  (2011) Efficacy of different levels of Escherichia coli phytase in hens fed maize-soyabean meal based diets with a decreased non-phytate phosphorus content. J Anim Feed Sci. 20: 224-235.
Lei, Q.B., Shi, L.X., Zhang, K.Y., Ding, X.M., Bai, S.P., Liu, Y.G. (2011) Effect of reduced energy, protein and entire substitution of inorganic phosphorus by phytase on performance and bone mineralization of laying hens. Br Poult Sci. 52: 202-213.
Liebert, F., Htoo, J.K., Sünder, A. (2005)  Performance and nutrient utilization of laying hens fed low-phosphorus corn-soybean and wheat-soybean diets supplemented with microbial phytase. Poult Sci. 84: 1576-1583.
Liu, N., Liu, G.H., Li, F.D., Sands, J.S., Zhang, S., Zheng, A.J., Ru, Y.J. (2007)  Efficacy of phytases on egg production and nutrient digestibility in layers fed reduced phosphorus diets. Poult Sci. 86: 2337-2342.
Marounek, M., Skrivan, M., Dlouhá, G., Brenová, N. (2008) Availability of phytate phosphorus and endogenous phytase activity in the digestive tract of laying hens 20 and 47 weeks old. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 146: 353-359.
Marounek, M., Skrivan, M., Rosero, O., Rop, O. (2010) Intestinal and total tract phytate digestibility and phytase activity in the digestive tract of hens fed a wheat-maize-soyabean diet. J Anim Feed Sci. 19: 430-439.
Nys, Y., FrnPPin, D., Pointillart, A. (1999) Occurrence of phytase in plants, animals and microorganisms. in Phytase in Animal Nutrition and Waste Management: A BASF Reference. BASF Corp, Mount Olive, NJ, USA.
Panda, A.K., Rao, S.V.R., Raju, M.V.L.N., Bhanja, S.K. (2005) Effect of microbial phytase on production performance of White Leghorn layers fed on a diet low in non-phytate phosphorus. Br Poult Sci. 46: 464-469.
Pelicia, K., Garcia, E.A., Faitarone, A.B.G., Silva, A.P., Berto, D.A., Molino, A.B., Vercese, F. (2009) Calcium and available phosphorus levels for laying hens in second production cycle. Rev Bras Cienc Avic Braz J Poult Sci. 11: 39-49.
Scott, T.A., Kampen, R., Silvesides, F.G. (1999) The effect of phosphorus, phytase enzyme, and calcium on the performance of layers fed corn-based diets. Poult Sci. 78: 1742–1749.
Selle, P.H., Ravindran, V., Caldwell, R.V., Bryden, W.L. (2000) Phytate and phytase: Consequences for protein utilization. Nutr Res Rev. 13: 255-278.
Silva, J.H.V., Araujo, J.A., Goulart, C.C., Costa, F.G.P., Sakomura, N.K., Martins, T.D.D. (2008) Calcium:available phosphorus ratio and phytase levels for semi heavy laying hens in the first and second posture cycle. Rev Bras Zootecn. 37: 2166-2172.
Silversides, F.G., Hruby, M. (2009) Feed formulation using phytase in laying hen diets. J App Poult Res. 18: 15-22.
Singh, P.K. (2008) Significance of phytic acid and supplemental phytase in chicken nutrition: A review. World’s Poult Sci J. 64: 553-580.
Sohail, S.S., Roland, D.A. (2002) Influence of dietary phosphorus on performance of Hy-Line W36 hens. Poult Sci. 81: 75-83.
Summers, J.D. (1995) Reduced dietary phosphorus levels for layers. Poult Sci. 74: 1977–1983.
van der Klis, J.D., Versteegh, H.A.J., Simons P.C.M., Keis, A.K. (1997) The efficacy of phytase in corn-soybean meal-based diets for laying hens. Poult Sci. 76: 1535–1542.
Wu. G., Liu, Z., M. Bryant, M., Roland, Sr. D.A. (2006) Comparison of natuphos and phyzyme as phytase sources for commercial layers fed corn-soy diet. Poult Sci. 85: 64–69.