Wound healing activity of Origanum vulgare against surgical wounds infected by Staphylococcus aureus in a rat model

Document Type: Infectious agents- Diseases- Surgery

Authors

1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, Iran

2 Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Semnan, Semnan, Iran

3 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Rastegar Central Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Background: Wound infection has become a major medical problem in recent years. This is usually caused by Gram-positive bacteria, especially Staphylococcus aureus. Since antimicrobial resistance to current drugs has critically been developed in these causative microorganisms, substitution medicine has become one of the main interests within  researchers. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the healing activity of Origanum vulgare against surgical wounds infected by S. aureus. METHODS: Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups. Excisions were created surgically on the animals’ skin and then infected with S. aureus. Group 1 was treated with an extract of O. vulgare while Group 2 was untreated. Wound biopsy specimens were collected on Days 5, 10 and 16 and analyzed. RESULTS: Results showed that the hydroxyproline content in the treatment group was significantly higher in various post wounding days. The mean of hexosamine in the treated group was higher than in the control group. Protein content increased gradually in Day 10. Results of histopathological studies showed moderate to intense granulation tissue formation and neovascularization in the treated group on Day 10. Furthermore, the histopathological studies showed that intense matrix formation and collagen fiber deposition occurred in treatment group on Day 16 post wound, while intense granulation tissue formation was the prominent feature in control group. CONCLUSIONS: The present study has demonstrated that the ethanol extract of O. vulgare contains properties that accelerate wound healing activities compared to control group.
 

Keywords


Barker, W., Rodeheaver, G.T., Edgerton, M.T., Edlich, R.F. (1982) Damage to tissue defenses by a topical anesthetic agent. Ann Emerg Med. 11: 307–310.

Chithra, P., Sajithlal, G.B., Chandrakasan, G. (1998) Influence of aloe vera on the healing of dermal wounds in diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 59: 195–201.

Chithra, P., Sajithlal, G.B., Chandrakasan, G. (1998) Influence of aloe vera on the glycosaminoglycans in the matrix of healing dermal wounds in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 59: 179–186.

Cook, N. (1998) Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus versus the burn patient. Burns. 24: 91–98.

Derwich, E.L., Benziane, Z., Manar, A., Boukir, A.,  Taouil, R. (2010) Phytochemical analysis and in vitro antibacterial activity of the essential oil of Origanum vulgare from Morocco. Am Eurasian J Sci Res. 5: 120–129.

Diegelmann, R., Evans, M. (2004) Wound healing: An overview of acute, fibrotic and delayed healing. Front Biosci. 9: 283–289.

Dunphy, J.E., Udupa, K.N. (1956) Chemical and histochemical sequences in the normal healing of wounds. New Engl J Med. 253: 847–852.

Elson, L.A., Morgon, W.T. (1933) A colorimetric method for the determination of glucosamine and chondrosamine. Biochem J. 27: 1824–1828.

Gupta, A., Kumar, R.,  Pal, K.,  Banerjee, P.K., Sawhney, R.C. (2005) A preclinical study of the effects of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaf extract on cutaneous wound healing in albino rats.  Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 4: 88–92.

Kumar, B., Vijayakumar, M., Govindarajan, R. Pushpangadan, P. (2007) Ethnopharmacological approaches to wound healing-exploring medicinal plants of India. J Ethnopharmacol. 114: 103–113.

Lin, Z.Q., Kondo, T., Ishida, Y., Takayasu, T., Mukaida, N. (2003) Essential involvement of IL-6 in the skin wound-healing process as evidenced by delayed wound healing. J Leukocyte Biol. 73: 713–721.

Lowry, O.H., Roseborough, N.J., Farr, A.L., Randall, R.J. (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem. 193: 265–275.

Moslemi, H.R., Hoseinzadeh, H., Askari-Badouei, M., Kafshdouzan, K., Mazaheri Nezhad, R. (2012) Antimicrobial activity of Artemisia absinthium against surgical wounds infected by Staphylococcus aureus in a rat model. Indian J Microbiol. 52: 601–604.

Nayak, B.S. (2006) Cecropia peltata L (Cecropiaceae) has wound-healing potential: A preclinical study in a Sprague Dawley rat model. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 5: 20–26.

Nayak, B.S., Pereira, L. (2006) Catharanthus roseus flower extract has wound-healing activity in Sprague Dawley rats. BMC Complement Altern Med. 6: 1-6.

Pather, N., Viljoen, A.M., Kramer, B. (2011) A biochemical comparison of the in vivo effects of Bulbine frutescens and Bulbine natalensis on cutaneous wound healing. J Ethnopharmacol. 133: 364–370.

Rasik, A.M., Raghubir, R., Gupta, A., Shukla, A., Dubey, M.P., Srivastava, S., Jain, H.K. Kulshreshtha, D.K. (1999) Healing potential of Calotropis procera on dermal wounds in Guinea pigs. J Ethnopharmacol. 68: 261–266.

Ricard-Blum, S., Ruggiero, F. (2005) The collagen superfamily: from the extracellular matrix to the cell membrane. Pathol Biol. 53: 430–442.

Saeed, S., Tariq, P. (2009) Antibacterial activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare Linn.) against gram positive bacteria. Pak J Pharm Sci. 22: 421–424.

Sivropoulou, A., Papanikolaou, E., Nikolaou, C., Kokkini, S., Lanaras, T., Arsenakis, M. (1998) Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Origanum essential oils. J Agric Food Chem. 44: 1202–1205.

Stratford, A.F., Zoutman, D.E., Davidson, J.S. (2002) Effect of lidocaine and epinephrine on Staphylococcus aureus in a guinea pig model of surgical wound infection. Plast Reconstr Surg. 110: 1275–1279.

Sumitra, M., Manikandana, P., Suguna, L. (2005) Efficacy of Butea monosperma on dermal wound healing in rats. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 37: 566–573.

Teoh, S.L., Latiff, A., Das, S. (2009) The effect of topical extract of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on wound healing in nondiabetic rats and in rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin. Clin Exp Dermatol. 34: 815–822.

Woessner, J.F. (1961) The determination of hydroxyproline in tissue and protein samples containing small proportions of this amino acid. Arch Biochem Biophys. 93: 440–447.