Effects of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on antioxidant status in chicken thigh meat

Document Type : Nutrition - Hygiene


1 Animal Sciences Group, Faculty of Agriculture, Lorestan University, Khorram Abad, Iran

2 Division of Biochemistry, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorram Abad, Iran


Background: Artichoke extract (AE), containing natural antioxidant compounds, can be considered as a good source of antioxidant potential. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate antioxidant abilities of AE on broiler meat quality. METHODS: 200 Ross chicken broilers were divided into five equal groups and received 100, 200, 300, and 500 mg/liter of AE in drinking water and pure water in the control group, respectively. Antiradical activity and phenolic content of AE were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and gallic acid measurement before adding extract into drinking water. The broilers received AE extract form 21-35 day of growing phase and the samples from thigh muscles were taken for biochemical analysis in the 42 day of the growing phase. RESULTS: Antiradical activity of AE was 35% and phenolic content was 3.3 g/100g of dry extract. Regarding antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT), the AE with dosage of 200 mg/l indicated maximum antioxidant ability compared to the other groups (p<0.05). Supplementation of AE200 mg/l also demonstrated the lowest GPx and CAT activities, compared to the control and AE 300 mg/l groups (p<0.05). Regarding performance weight gain, average daily weight gain, percentage of weight gain in 21 to 35 as well as final weight were similar in control and AE-received groups and AE indicated similar effect for all the treatments. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that administration of 200 mg/l AE in drinking water during growing phase decreased GPx and CAT activities in chicken meat presumably due to down-regulation of gene expression for antioxidant enzymes.


Article Title [Persian]

اثر عصاره کنگرفرنگی (.Cynara scolymus L) بر ظرفیت آنتی اکسیدانی گوشت ران جوجههای گوشتی

Authors [Persian]

  • مریم میردریکوند 1
  • علی کیانی 1
  • مجید خالداری 1
  • مسعود علیرضائی 2
1 گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران
2 بخش بیوشیمی، دانشکده دامپزشکی دانشگاه لرستان، خرم آباد، ایران
Abstract [Persian]

زمینه مطالعه: عصاره کنگرفرنگی حاوی ترکیبات آنتی اکسیدان طبیعی میتواند بعنوان یک منبع با پتانسیل خوب آنتی اکسیدانی در نظر گرفته شود. هدف: هدف از انجام این مطالعه ارزیابی توانایی آنتی اکسیدان عصاره کنگر فرنگی بر کیفیت گوشت جوجهها بود. روش کار: 200 جوجه گوشتی نژاد رأس به پنج گروه مساوی تقسیم شدند و به ترتیب 100، 200، 300 و 500 عصاره کنگر فرنگی (94%) در آب آشامیدنی (mg/l) و گروه کنترل آب خالص دریافت کردند. پیش از افزودن عصاره به آب آشامیدنی، فعالیت آنتی رادیکالی عصاره توسط روش 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) و محتوی فنل آن براساس میزان گالیک اسید اندازهگیری شد. جوجههای گوشتی با عصاره کنگر فرنگی از روز 35-21 دوره رشد درمان شدند و نمونههای گوشت ران برای آنالیز بیوشیمیایی در روز 42 از دوره پرورش تهیه شد. نتایج: فعالیت آنتی رادیکالی عصاره و محتوی فنل به ترتیب 35٪ و/100 g  3/3 عصاره بود. در خصوص آنزیمهای آنتی اکسیدانی مانند گلوتاتیون پراکسیداز (GPx) و کاتالاز (CAT)، استفاده ازmg/l‌200 عصاره کنگرفرنگی بیشترین خاصیت آنتی اکسیدانی را در مقایسه با گروههای دیگر نشان داد (0.05>p). همچنین، افزودن mg/l‌200  عصاره کنگرفرنگی به آب آشامیدنی کمترین فعالیت را برای آنزیمهای GPx و CAT در مقایسه با گروه کنترل و mg/l‌300 صاره نشان داد (0.05>p). تفاوتهای معنیداری بین گروه کنترل و گروههای دریافت کننده عصاره برای شاخصهای عملکردی وزن مانند: میزان افزایش وزن، متوسط افزایش وزن روزانه، درصد افزایش وزن در روزهای 35-21 دوره آزمایش نسبت به کل دوره و وزن نهایی وجود نداشت (0.05<p).  نتیجهگیرینهایی: این مطالعه نشان داد که تجویز mg/l‌200 عصاره کنگرفرنگی در آب آشامیدنی در طول دوره رشد فعالیت آنزیمهای آنتی اکسیدانی گلوتاتیون پراکسیداز (GPx) و کاتالاز (CAT) را در گوشت ران جوجههای گوشتی کاهش داد، که احتمالاً نتیجه کاهش بیان ژن برای این آنزیمها میباشد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • عصاره کنگرفرنگی
  • جوجه گوشتی
  • گلوتاتیون پراکسیداز
  • پایداری لیپید
Alirezaei, M., Reza Gheisari, H., Reza Ranjbar, V., Hajibemani, A. (2012) Betaine: a promising antioxidant agent for enhancement of broiler meat quality. J Br Poult Sci. 53: 699-707.
Balasundram, N., Sundram, K., Samman, S. (2006) Phenolic compounds in plants and agri-industrial by-products: antioxidant activity, occurrence, and potential uses. J Food  Chem. 99: 191-203.
Bobek, P., Ozdín, L., Hromadova, M. (1998) The effect of dried tomato, grape and apple pomace on the cholesterol metabolism and antioxidative enzymatic system in rats with hypercholesterolemia. Food/ Nahrung. 42: 317-320.
Botsoglou, N.A., Fletouris, D.J., Florou-Paneri, P., Christaki, E., Soais, A.B. (2002) Inhibition of lipid oxidation in long-term frozen stored chicken meat by dietary oregano essential oil and α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. J Food Res. 36: 2007-2013.
Brand-williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E., Berset, C. (1995) Use of free radical method t evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensm Wiss Technol. 28: 25-30.
Breinholt, V., Lauridsen, S.T., Dragsted, L.O. (1999) Differential effects of dietary flavonoids on drug metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in female rat. Xenobiotica. 29: 1227-1240.
Burits, M., Bucar, F. (2000) Antioxidant activity of Nigella sativa essential oil. Phytother Res. 14: 323-328.
Chu, Y.H., Chang, C.L., Hsu, H.F. (2000) Flavonoid content of several vegetables and their antioxidant activity. J Agric Food Chem. 45: 2374-2378.
Claibrone, A. (1985) Catalase activity. In: Handbook of the Methods for Oxygen Radical Research. Greenwald, R.A. (ed.) (2nd ed.) CRC Press. Boca Raton. p. 283-284.
Dabbou, S., Gasco, L., Gai, F., Zoccarato, I., Rotolo, L., DabbouFekih, S., Peiretti, P.G. (2014) Dried artichoke bracts in rabbits nutrition: effects on the carcass characteristics, meat quality and fatty-acid composition. Animal. 8: 1547-1553.
Dora, A., Roth-Maier, B., Bohmer, M., Maab, N., Damme K., Paulicks, M.B.R. (2005) Efficiency of Echinacea purpureaon performance of broilers and layers. Eur J Poult Sci. 69: 123-127.
Duncan, D.B. (1955) Multiple range and multiple F test. Biometrics. 11: 1-42.
Gutteridge, J.M. (1995) Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants as biomarkers of tissue damage. Clin Chem. 41: 1819-1828.
Jacob, R.A. (1995) The integrated antioxidant system. Nutr Res. 15: 755-766.
Jimenez-Escrig, A., Dragsted, L.O., Daneshvar, B., Pulido, R., Saura-Calixto, F. (2003) In vitro antioxidant activities of edible artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and effect on biomarkers of antioxidants in rats. J Agric Food Chem. 51: 5540-5545.
Kheradmand, A., Alirezaei, M., Birjandi, M. (2010) Ghrelinpromotes antioxidant enzyme activity and reduces lipidperoxidation in the rat ovary. Regul Pept. 162: 84-89.
Lattanzio, V., Kroon, P.A., Linsalata, V., Cardinali, A. (2009) Globe artichoke: a functional food and source of nutraceutical ingredients. J Func Foods. 1: 131-144.
Lattanzio, V., Sumere van, C.F. (1987) Changes in phenolic compounds during the development and cold storage of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) heads. J Food Chem. 24: 37-50.
Lee, K.W., Everts, H., Kappert, H.J., Beynen, A.C. (2004) Growth performance of broiler chickens fed a carboxymethyl cellulose containing diet with supplemental carvacrol and/or cinnamaldehyde. Int J Poult Sci. 3: 619-622.
Llorach, R., Espin, J., Tomas-Barberan, F.A.,Ferreres, F. (2002) Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) byproducts as a potential source of health-promoting antioxidant phenolics. J Agric Food Chem. 50: 3458-3464.
Lopez-bote, C.J., Gray, J.I., Gomaa, E.A., Flegal, C.J. (1998) Effect of dietary administration of oil extracts from rosemary and sage on lipid oxidation in broiler meat. J Br Poult Sci. 39: 235-240.
Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L., Randall, R.J. (1951) Protein measurments with the folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem. 193: 265-275.
Maraschiello, C., Sarraga, C., Garcia Regueiro, J.A. (1999) Glutathione peroxidase activity, TBARS, and alfa-tocopherol in meat from chickens fed different diets. J Agric Food Chem. 47: 867-873.
Masella, R., Benedetto, R.D., Varì, R., Filesi, C., Giovannini, C. (2005) Novel mechanisms  of natural antioxidant compounds in biological systems: involvement of glutathione and glutathione-related enzymes. J Nutr Biochem. 16: 577-586.
Morrissey, P.A., Sheehy, P.J.A., Galvin, K., Kerry, J.P., Buckley, D.K. (1998) Lipid stability in meat and meat products. J Meat Sci. 49: S73-S86.
Nateghi, R., Samadi, F., Ganji, F., Zerehdaran, S. (2013) Hepatoprotective effects of Cynara scolymus L. extract on CCl4 induced liver injury in broiler chickens. Int J Agric Sci. 3:  678-688.
Schutz, K., Kammere, D., Carle, R., Schieber, A. (2004) Identification and quantification of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) heads, juice, and pomace by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n). J Agric Food Chem. 52: 4090-4096.
Sies, H. (1997) Oxidative stress: oxidants and antioxidants. J Exp Phy. 82: 291-295.
Singh, R.P., Murthy, K.N., Jayaprakasha, G.K. (2002) Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate peel and seed extracts using in vitro models. J Agric Food Chem. 50: 81-86.
Sohal, R.S., Allen, R.G. (1986) Relationship between oxygen metabolism, aging and development. Adv Free Radical Biol Med. 2: 117-160.
Subbarao, K.V., Richardson, J.S., Ang, L.C. (1990) Autopsy samples of Alzheimer’s cortex show increased peroxidation in vitro. J Neurochem. 55: 342-345.
Vyncke, W. (1975) Evaluation of the direct thiobarbituric acid extraction method for determining oxidative rancidity in mackerel (Scomber scombrus L.). Fette Seifen Anstrichmittel. 77: 239-240.
Wang, M., Simon, J.E., Aviles, I.F., He, K., Zheng, Q.Y., Tadmor, Y. (2003) Analysis of antioxidative phenolic compounds in artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.). J Agric Food Chem. 51: 601-608.
Yildiz, G., Sacakli, P., Gungor, T. (2006) The effect of dietary Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) on performance, egg quality characteristics and egg cholesterol content in laying hens. J Poult Sci. 51: 349-354.
Youdim, K.A., Deans, S.G. (2000) Effect of thyme oil and thymol dietary supplementation on the antioxidant status and fatty acid composition of the ageing rat brain. Br J Nutr. 83: 87-93.