Food Intake Regulation in Birds: the Role of Neurotransmitters and Hormones

Document Type: Reproduction - Physiology

Authors

1 Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran

2 Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO)

3 Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Neurotransmitters (NTS) are endogenous chemicals secreted from neural terminals into
the synaptic cleft of the chemical neurons in order to affect their receptors. NTS play vital physiological role as
stimulatory, inhibitory or modulatory compounds.
OBJECTIVES:
This review was aimed to summarize the roles of the most important NTS which regulate
food intake in the avian species.
RESULTS:
Over 40 neurotransmitters are known as regulatory agents that control ingestion behavior in mammals
and birds. Acetylcholine (Ach), epinephrine (EP), norepinephrine (NEP), histamine, gamma amino butyric
acid (GABA), glycine, serotonin and glutamate have been identified as the mediatory agents about regulation
of feeding behavior in birds. Based on the molecular weight and the type of efficacy, NTS have been
categorized into the two main groups including “the small molecular weight fast-effective NTS and the large
molecular wieght slow-effective neuropeptides. Various physiological functions have been presented for NTS
and it seems many other unknown effects and even possible interactions among them are still questionable.
Appetite control, mediatory role of ingestion behavior and regulation of food intake have recently been highlighted
among various roles of NTS in chicken.
CONCLUSIONS:
Food intake regulation is a complex physiologic process that is under the control of the
central and environmental signals. Considering of the involvement of feeding behavior in other major physiological
processes such as the growth, immunity and production, it is necessary to realize the role of different
mediators which are affecting and modulating food intake in avian species.

Keywords


Article Title [Persian]

نقش میانجی های عصبی در تنظیم مرکزی اخذ غذا و اشتها در پرندگان

Authors [Persian]

  • محمد شجاعی 1
  • علیرضا یوسفی 2
  • مرتضی زنده دل 3
  • مینا خدادادی 3
1 موسسه تحقیقات واکسن و سرم سازی رازی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران
2 موسسه تحقیقات واکسن و سرم سازی رازی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی
3 گروه علوم پایه دانشکده دامپزشکی دانشگاه تهران،تهران،ایران
Abstract [Persian]

زمینه مطالعه: میانجی‌های عصبی (نوروترنسمیترها) ترکیباتی هستند که از پایانه‌های عصبی نورون‌های شیمیایی به فضای سیناپسی ترشح می‌شوند و بر گیرنده‌های غشایی دیگر نورون‌ها اثر می‌گذارند.

هدف: هدف این مقاله مرور نقش برخی از میانجی‌های عصبی موثر بر تنظیم مصرف خوراک پرندگان و عوامل تعدیل‌کننده‌ی آن‌ها می‌باشد.

نتایج : میانجی‌های عصبی می‌توانند به‌عنوان یک عامل تحریک کننده، مهارکننده و یا تعدیل کننده‌ نقش آفرینی کنند. تا کنون بیش از 40 میانجی عصبی مهم کشف شده است که از جمله می‌توان به استیل کولین، اپی‌نفرین، نوراپی‌نفرین، هیستامین، گاما آمینو بوتیریک اسید (GABA)، گلایسین، سروتونین و گلوتامات به‌عنوان مهمترین میانجی‌های عصبی موثر بر کنترل رفتار تغذیه‌ای اشاره کرد. به طور کلی، میانجی‌های سیناپسی به دو دسته تقسیم می‌شوند، دسته‌ی نخست از مولکول‌های کوچکی ساخته شده‌ و تند اثر هستند؛ دسته دوم، نوروپپتیدهایی با اندازه مولکولی بزرگ‌تر می‌باشند و نسبت به دسته‌ی نخست، آهسته‌تر اثر می‌گذارند.

نتیجه‌گیری نهایی: میانجی‌های عصبی کنش‌های گوناگونی دارند و جنبه‌های ناشناخته‌ی کارایی و اثرات متقابل آنها مورد پرسش می-باشد. از مهمترین نقش‌هایی که برای میانجی‌های عصبی در نظر گرفته می‌شود، اثر آن‌ها بر تنظیم اشتها و مصرف خوراک است. تنظیم مصرف خوراک فرآیند پیچیده‌ای است که در اثر برهم‌کنش‌ فرسته‌های (سیگنال‌های) مرکزی و محیطی کنترل می‌شود. با توجه به اهمیت تنظیم اشتها در فرآیندهای مختلفی از جمله رشد، ایمنی و تولید، شناخت نقش میانجی‌های مختلف بر مصرف خوراک و همچنین عوامل مؤثر بر تعدیل آن‌ها اهمیت فراوانی دارد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • پرنده
  • اشتها
  • رفتار تغذیه‌ای
  • مصرف خوراک
  • میانجی عصبی
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