Comparison of Tolerance to Theileriosis in Different Breed of Cattle by Evaluation of Clinical Signs and Response to Treatment

Document Type: Infectious agents- Diseases- Surgery

Authors

1 1Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran

3 2Division of Epidemiology and Zoonoses, Department of Food Hygiene and Quality Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 3Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Specialized Veterinary Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

10.22059/ijvm.2020.292955.1005044

Abstract

 
reducing production and death. The disease in endemic areas would be mild or subclinical in indigenous cattle and clinically acute in exotics.
OBJECTIVES:
This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance of indigenous cattle in comparison with Holstein and crossbred cattle against Theileria annulata through assessment of clinical signs and response to treatment.
METHODS:
For this purpose, the data history and clinical examination were observed on 51 naturally affected cattle with T. annulata (17 Holstein, 17 crossbred and 17 indigenous cows). Examination of blood smears was used for diagnosis. Detection of schizonts in lymph node punctured smears confirmed validity of the suspect samples. All three groups of cows were treated with buparvaquone along with oxytetracycline. Their clinical signs and the results of blood smear examinations were recorded before and 48 hours after treatment. The severity of clinical signs, parasitemia rates and response to treatment were compared among the groups.
RESULTS:
The results showed significant difference (p <0.05) in severity of fever, intense and abnormal lung sounds, mucosal changes (pallor, jaundice, petechiae) and ruminal hypomotility among the groups. There was no significant difference in parasitemia rate and response to treatment among the groups.
CONCLUSIONS:
This study indicated that Iranian indigenous cattle in comparison with Holsteins and crossbreeds had milder clinical manifestations and no significant difference in response to treatment for tropical theileriosis.

Keywords


Article Title [فارسی]

مقایسه مقاومت نژادهای مختلف گاو نسبت به تیلریوز با ارزیابی نشانه های بالینی و پاسخ به درمان

Authors [فارسی]

  • افشین رئوفی 1
  • محمد فاطمی 2
  • سعید بکایی 3
  • عباس ضیغمی 4
1 گروه بیماری های داخلی، دانشکده دامپزشکی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران
2 گروه بیماری های داخلی، دانشکده دامپزشکی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران
3 بخش اپیدمیولوژی و بیماری های مشترک، گروه بهداشت مواد غذایی و کنترل کیفی، دانشکده دامپزشکی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران
4 گروه علوم بالینی، دانشکده علوم تخصصی دامپزشکی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی ، تهران، ایران
Abstract [فارسی]

زمینه مطالعه:
تیلریوز یکی از بیماریهای مهم گاو در ایران است که باعث خسارات اقتصادی از طریق کاهش تولید و مرگ دا مها م یشود. در نواحی اندمیک
ممکن است این بیماری در گاوهای بومی به صورت خفیف و تحت بالینی ودر گاوهای غیربومی به شکل بالینی و حاد بروز یابد.
هدف:
هدف این تحقیق ارزیابى مقاومت گاوهاى بومى در مقایسه با گاوهاى هلشتاین و دورگ در مقابل آلودگى با تیلریا آنولاتا از طریق بررسى
نشانه هاى بالینى و پاسخ به درمان است.
روش کار:
اخذ سابقه و معاینه بالینى روى 51 رأس گاو مبتلا به تیلریوز ( 17 رأس هلشتاین، 17 راس دو رگ، 17 رأس بومى) انجام شد.
مبناى تشخیص بیمارى بررسى گسترش خون و در موارد مشکوک یافتن شیزونت انگل در نمونه هاى بیوپسى عقده هاى لنفاوى بود. تمامى گاوها
در سه گروه با تجویز بوپارواکن همراه با اکسى تتراسیکلین تحت درمان قرار گرفتند. نشانه هاى بالینى و نتایج بررسى گسترش هاى خون قبل از
شروع درمان و 48 ساعت بعد از آن ثبت شد. شدت نشانه هاى بالینى، میزان پارازیتمى و پاسخ به درمان در سه گروه با هم مقایسه شد.
نتایج:
مطالعه حاضر نشان داد که تفاو تهای معنی داری ) 05 / P >0 ( در شدت تب، شدت صداهای ریه، صداهای غیرطبیعی ریه، تغییر در مخاطات
)کمرنگی، زردی، خونریز یهای نقطه ای( و کاهش حرکات شکمبه در بین گروه ها وجود دارد. تفاوت معنی داری از نظر میزان پارازیتمی و پاسخ به درمان در بین
گروه ها وجود نداشت.
نتیجه گیری نهایی:
این تحقیق نشان داد که گاوهاى بومى ایران در مقایسه با گاوهاى هلشتاین و دو رگ نشانه هاى بالینى تیلریوز را به
شکل خفیف ترى بروز م ىدهند ولى تفاوت معن ىدارى از نظر پاسخ به درمان بین آنها وجود ندارد.

Keywords [فارسی]

  • نژاد
  • گاو
  • نشانه های بالینی
  • پاسخ به درمان
  • تیلریوز

Introduction

Tropical theileriosis or  Mediterranean Coast Fever - caused by Theileria annulata - is a disease of cattle widely distributed across Southern Europe, North Africa and Central Asia. Economically, theileriosis due to T. an- nulata is one of the most important diseases of cattle in Iran, with a major potential threat to expansion and improvement of livestock production (Hashemi-Fesharaki, 1988).

The disease and its severity not only de- pend on the virulence of the causative agent, but also to a large extent on the degree of host susceptibility, which largely  depends on the breed (Osman and AlGaabary, 2007). In a stable endemic situation, there may be only mild or no clinical disease in local Zebu cattle (Constable et al., 2017). Clinical signs include marked fever, swelling of superfi- cial lymph nodes, inappetence, tachycardia, dyspnea, anemia, pale mucous membranes, and icterus. Petechiae and ecchymoses may be found on the conjunctiva and oral mucous membranes. Other clinical signs are diarrhea, weight loss, with decreased milk yield (Con- stable et al., 2017). Exotic cattle (Bos taurus) are particularly susceptible with mortalities up to 40% to 80% in some areas, whereas in indigenous cattle (Bos indicus) that general- ly suffer from much lower mortalities (about 10%) it is confined mainly to calves (Hash- emi-Fesharaki, 1988).

Theileriosis can be diagnosed by finding piroplasms in erythrocytes in Giemsa-stained thin smears from blood or lymph node biop- sies showing schizonts in lymphocytes. Bu- parvaquone is the most effective agent avail- able, and the recommended dose is 2.5 mg/  kg BW (Constable et al., 2017). In Iran, the routine treatment method for theileriosis is us- ing buparvaquone along with oxytetracycline, and control of disease relies on tick control


 

using acaricides and theileriosis  vaccination. It is suggested that Iranian indigenous cat-

tle in comparison with Holsteins had lower parasitemia rate, weaker response to T. annu- lata infection, milder clinical manifestations and significantly lower levels of acute phase proteins (Nazifi et al., 2010).

This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance of indigenous cattle in comparison with Holstein and crossbred cattle against

T. annulata through assessment of clinical signs and response to routine treatment.

Materials and methods

This study was conducted in the north re- gion of Iran (Gonbad-e-kavous township), where theileriosis due to T. annulata is prevalent. Historical data were collected and clinical examination was done on 51 natural- ly affected cattle with Theileria annulata (17 Holstein, 17 crossbred and 17 indigenous cows). Clinical examination included mea- suring temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, auscultation of heart and lung, mucosal observation (for jaundice, pallor, hemorrhag- es) and palpation of prescapular, prefemoral and submandibular lymph nodes.

Examination of blood smears was used for diagnosis. Peripheral blood samples were tak- en from auricular veins and blood smears were stained by Giemsa. The slides were examined through light microscope, in which the piroplas- mic forms of the parasite were detected. The samples were divided into three groups accord- ing to their parasitemia rates by the percentage of infected erythrocytes (<33%, 33-66% and

>66%). Suspected  samples  were  confirmed by lymph node puncture and Giemsa staining which determined Theileria schizont forms.

All the cows in the three groups were treated with buparvaquone (single injection

 

 

 

of 2.5 mg/kg bodyweight (BW), IM) along with oxytetracycline (10 mg/kg BW, IM, q 24 h for  3 days). Their clinical signs and the results of blood smear examinations were recorded before treatment and 48 h after treatment. The severity of clinical signs, parasitemia rates and respons- es to treatment were compared among groups. Data obtained from this survey were analyzed statistically by SPSS software using Chi-square and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests and P

Results

Clinical findings revealed that all the af- fected cows in three groups had increased re-

 

spiratory rate, 98% with anorexia and lymph nodes enlargement, 96.1% had fever and decreased milk yield. These clinical signs  are more prevalent than others. In the indig- enous cows the severity of fever was signifi- cantly (P<0.05) lower and the mean value of respiratory rate was significantly (P<0.001) lower than the other two groups. Abnormal lung sounds were only observed in Holstein cows (17.6%). Mucosal jaundice and pete- chiae were not seen in indigenous cattle and significant difference (P<0.05) in mucosal changes was recorded among groups. Rumi- nal hypomotility was significantly (P<0.05) lower in indigenous cattle (Table 1).

 

 

Table 1. The definite and relative frequencies of clinical signs of theileriosis according to breed of cattle

 

 

Breed

 

Clinical   signs

Holstein Fr   (%)

Crossbred Fr   (%)

 

Indigenous Fr   (%)

Total

Fr (%)

Fever

16   (94.2)

17   (100)

 

16 (94.2)

49 (96.1)

Tachycardia

9   (52.9)

13   (76.4)

 

8 (47.1)

30 (58.9)

Increased   respiratory rate

17   (100)

17   (100)

 

17 (100)

51 (100)

Increased   heart sound intensity

7   (41.2)

6   (35.3)

 

2 (11.8)

15 (29.4)

Increased   lung sound intensity*

8   (47.1)

3   (17.6)

 

0 (0)

11 (21.6)

Abnormal lung   sounds*

3   (17.6)

0   (0)

 

0 (0)

3 (5.9)

Cough

13   (76.5)

9   (52.9)

 

9 (52.9)

31 (60.8)

Mucosal   pallor*

10   (58.8)

7   (41.2)

 

3 (17.6)

20 (39.2)

Mucosal   jaundice*

9   (52.9)

3   (17.6)

 

0 (0)

12 (23.5)

Mucosal   petechiae*

6   (35.3)

3   (17.6)

 

0 (0)

9 (17.6)

Ruminal   hypomotility*

14   (82.4)

15   (88.2)

 

9 (52.9)

38 (74.5)

Anorexia

17   (100)

17   (100)

 

16 (94.1)

50 (98)

Diarrhea

9   (52.9)

8   (47.1)

 

8 (47.1)

25 (49)

Lymph nodes   enlargement

17   (100)

17   (100)

 

16 (94.1)

50 (98)

Teeth   grinding (pain)

13   (76.5)

12   (70.6)

 

13 (76.5)

38 (74.5)

Decreased   milk yield

17   (100)

17   (100)

 

15 (88.2)

49 (96.1)

Fr (%) frequency, * P<0.05

 

 

 

In the present study the parasitemia rate was quantified and expressed as the per- centage of infected erythrocytes. The dif- ference in the percentage of infected eryth-


rocytes was not significant among groups (Table 2). This finding indicated that par- asitemia rate was not different in three breeds of cows.

 

 

Table 2. The percentage of infected erythrocytes according to breed of cattle

 

 

Infected erythrocytes   (%)

Breed

                                                                                                                                                   

Holstein Fr   (%)

Crossbred Fr   (%)

Indigenous Fr   (%)

Total

Fr (%)

< 33

3   (17.6)

7   (41.2)

5 (29.4)

15   (29.4)

33-66

6   (35.3)

3   (17.6)

5 (29.4)

14   (27.5)

> 66

8   (47.1)

7   (41.2)

7 (41.2)

22   (43.1)

Fr (%) frequency, α=0.05

 

 

There was no significant difference among the breeds in response to treatment with buparvaquone along with oxytetracy- cline (Table 3). The data history of animals


showed that delay in treatment is a notable factor in response to treatment, in addition severity of parasitemia decreased the ef- fects of the treatment.

 

 

Table 3. The response to treatment of theileriosis according to breed of cattle

 

Breed

Response   to treatment

Holstein Fr (%)

Crossbred Fr   (%)

Indigenous Fr (%)

Total

Fr (%)

Positive

11 (64.7)

11 (64.7)

9 (52.9)

31   (60.8)

Negative

6 (35.3)

6 (35.3)

8 (47.1)

20   (39.2)

Fr (%) frequency, α=0.05

 

 

Discussion

Tropical theileriosis is an important par- asitic disease of cattle in Iran with a poten- tially great economic impact. Local breeds have tolerance to infection while exotic  and cross breeds are highly susceptible to great loss due to progression of this disease (Hashemi-Fesharaki, 1988). In this study Holstein and crossbred cows showed higher (P<0.05) fever than indigenous cows. The mean value of respiratory rate in the indig- enous cows was significantly (P<0.001)


lower than the other two groups and ab- normal lung sounds were only observed in Holstein cows. The frequencies of mucosal pallor, jaundice and petechiae were higher (P<0.05) in Holstein cows. Ruminal hypo- motility was significantly (P<0.05)  lower in indigenous cattle. These results suggest- ed that Holstein and crossbred cattle suffer more acutely from the disease than indige- nous cattle that are more resistant to thei- leriosis and exhibit milder clinical signs. The different response of various cattle breeds has been investigated in Theileria

 

 

 

infections. In breeds of cattle such as Bos indicus, Sahiwal is more resistant to T. an- nulata. This breed exhibited mild clinical signs and recovered from a dose of parasite which was fatal in the Holstein, B. Taurus. Holsteins showed higher fever response  and higher levels of parasitemia rate than Sahiwals. One feature of theileriosis is the production of acute phase proteins indicat- ing that the parasite induces high systemic levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In Holsteins, there is  prolonged  production  of the acute phase proteins, which in con- trast is only slightly elevated in the Sahi- wals (Glass and Jensen, 2007).  Nazifi  et al. (2010) reported that Iranian indigenous cattle compared with  Holsteins  had  low- er parasitemia rate, weaker response to T. annulata infection, milder clinical man- ifestations and significantly lower  levels  of acute phase proteins. Schizont-infected cells multiply in the draining lymph nodes and disseminate rapidly along with lym- phoblasts throughout the lymphoid tissues and in nonlymphoid organs, including the liver, kidney, lung, abomasum, and brain. Virulence of the disease is associated with the capacity of infected cells to disseminate inside the host. Later, schizonts differenti- ate into merozoites and invade erythrocytes (as piroplasms). The pathogenesis therefore involves proliferation of macrophages in- duced by schizonts, and anemia with icterus induced mostly by the piroplasms. Macro- phages/monocytes are the main producers of inflammatory cytokines that can induce an acute-phase protein response. The re- sponse is greater in Bos taurus Holstein breed than the Bos indicus Sahiwal breed, and this would explain the greater severity of disease in the Holstein. Infected macro- phages from taurine breeds are also more


capable of aggressive invasiveness than zebu breeds (Constable et al., 2017).

In East and Southern Africa, Zebu and Sanga cattle and their crossbreds are consid- ered to be tolerant to theileriosis (Ndung’u et al., 2005). Resistance to tick infestation varies among breeds of cattle. It is known that in many subtropical environments in Africa, indigenous breeds are highly resis- tant to ticks and theileriosis (Laisser et al., 2017). This study showed no parasitemia rate difference among the three breeds of cows.

The ability of cattle to resist ticks and tick-borne diseases such as theileriosis de- pends on the strength of their immunity to respond against the infectious sporozoites, schizonts, and piroplasm parasitic antigens. Development of a stronger immunity sys- tem comes about through exposure to such diseases (Laisser et al., 2017).

In this study there was no significant difference among the breeds in response to treatment with buparvaquone along with oxytetracycline. History of animals indi- cated that treatment is most  effective  in  the early stages of the disease and delay in treatment would have a notable impact on the animals’ response to the treatment. In addition, severity of parasitemia decreased the effects of treatment. These findings were in agreement with what was previously de- scribed by Dhar et al. (1988) and McHardy et al. (1985).

Zebu cattle survive without regular tick control methods such as dipping or spray- ing and the infected animals recover with- out treatment, using drugs (Laisser et al., 2014; Kazungu et al., 2015). This indicates that the indigenous zebu cattle in Tanzania possess genes which enable them to live and reproduce under high tick and theileri-

 

 

 

osis challenges (Laisser et al., 2017).

Some factors that affect cattle to resist tick infection include heritability of the trait where cattle acquire the tolerability through inheritance, natural exposure to infected ticks, immunization by infection and treat- ment method, increasing tick challenge,  and increased calf recovering rate after a disease challenge (Laisser et al., 2017).

This study showed that Iranian indige- nous cattle in comparison with Holsteins and crossbreds had milder clinical manifes- tations and no significant difference in re- sponse to treatment for tropical theileriosis.

Acknowledgments

The authors wish to thank Dr. P. Jazebi for

his assistance.

Conflict of interest

The authors declared that there is no con- flict of interest.

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