Comparative Study of Micro Ostrich Eggshell and Hydroxyapatite onthe Healing of Bone Defect Created in the Rat Calvarium

Document Type : Infectious agents- Diseases


1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran

2 Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran


BACKGROUND: Fracture healing is one of the important issues in medicine and veterinary. Therefore, finding new tech-niques with fewer side effects and faster healing is taken into consideration.
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the composites of micro ostrich eggshell (μ-OES) and hydroxyapatite (HA) composite on the healing of bone defect in rat calvarium.
Defects of 7 mm were made by a trephine in the calvaria of 45 male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into three groups and the defects in each group were filled with micro-composites that contained ostrich eggshell or HA or were left empty. The animals were euthanized at three different time points of 14, 28, and 42 days post-operation. Histological and serological assessments, such as measuring alkaline phosphatase were carried out at the same time points.
Significant differences were observed in the granulation tissue formation of the treatment and control groups 14 days post-operation (p ≤0.05). The difference between μ-OES and HA treatment groups was not statistically significant (p >0.05). On days 28 and 42, there were no significant differences between the groups. However, in the center of the defect, the mean of healing in the μOES group was higher than the two other groups.
In conclusion, the results of this study indicated the potential efficacy of μOES as a bone substitute in a rat calvarial defect model


Article Title [Persian]

مقایسه تاثیر میکرو ذرات پوسته تخم شترمرغ و هیدروکسی آپاتیت بر التیام نقیصه استخوانی ایجاد شده در کالواریوم رت

Authors [Persian]

  • سارا حبیب نژاد عربی 1
  • حمید رضا مسلمی 1
  • سحر غفاری خلیق 2
1 گروه علوم درمانگاهی، دانشکده دامپزشکی دانشگاه سمنان، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران
2 گروه پاتوبیولوژی، دانشکده دامپزشکی دانشگاه سمنان، دانشگاه سمنان، سمنان، ایران
Abstract [Persian]

زمینه مطالعه:  درمان شکستگی یکی از مباحث مهم و مورد توجه در علم پزشکی و دامپزشکی است و همواره یافتن یک تکنیک جدید که بتواند حداقل عوارض جانبی را داشته باشد و سرعت التیام شکستگی را افزایش دهد، مورد توجه بوده است.
هدف: در این تحقیق با مطالعۀ تجربی روی استخوان کالواریوم رت میزان تاثیر میکرو‌پوستۀ تخم شتر‌مرغ و مقایسه آن با هیدروکسی‌آپاتیت در تسریع روند ترمیم استخوان ارزیابی شد.  
روش کار: تعداد 45 قطعه رت نر از نژاد ویستار انتخاب و با استفاده از ترفاین به قطر هفت میلی‌متر، یک حفره روی استخوان کالواریوم ایجاد گردید. سپس رت‌ها به سه گروه تقسیم شدند. در گروه اول، حفرات با میکرو‌پوستۀ تخم شترمرغ و در گروه دوم با هیدروکسی‌آپاتیت پر شد. در گروه سوم به‌عنوان کنترل از هیچ درمانی استفاده نشد. حیوانات در روزهای 14، 28 و 42 بعد از جراحی به روش انسانی آرام­کشی شدند. ارزیابی­های هیستولوژی و سرولوژی (َALP) در روزهای مورد مطالعه انجام گرفت.
نتایج: بر اساس یافته‌های به‌دست آمده در روز 14، میزان التیام در دو گروه درمانی نسبت به گروه کنترل به‌طور معناداری بالاتر بود (05/0p < /em>≤). در حالی‌که در این ‌روز میزان التیام بین دو گروه میکروپوستۀ تخم شترمرغ و هیدروکسی­آپاتیت اختلاف معنی­داری را نشان نداد (05/0p < /em>>). در روزهای 28 و  42 بعد از جراحی، میزان التیام در گروه‌های مورد مطالعه اختلاف معنی‌داری نداشت ولی میانگین میزان التیام در مرکز ضایعه در گروه میکرو‌پوستۀ تخم‌ شترمرغ نسبت به دو گروه هیدروکسی‌آپاتیت و کنترل بالاتر بود.
نتیجه‌گیری نهایی: بنابر‌این مشخص گردید که به‌کارگیری میکرو پوستۀ تخم شترمرغ می‌تواند روند التیام را در نقیصۀ ایجادشده در استخوان کالواریوم رت بهبود بخشد.

Keywords [Persian]

  • کالواریوم
  • هیدروکسی آپاتیت
  • هیستوپاتولوژی
  • میکرو ذرات پوسته تخم شترمرغ
  • رت


Bone defect and functional problems have turned into a critical worldwide health and hygiene issue (Grote, Reinhardt, Zhang & Wang, 2019; Van Der Spoel, Van Vliet & Van Heemst, 2019). Moreover, bone restoration is a complex process in closed and compound fractures that involve a bone-tissue loss of more than 3 cm. In comminuted fractures with more than 6 cm of tissue loss, the chances of deformity, shortening, recurrence of fractures due to non-union, and deformity resulting from malunion or asymmetric healing increase significantly (Mitchel, Keating & Robinson, 2010). At the same time, complications spawning from the application of conventional methods have advocated a strong shift towards developing three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds from regenerated biomaterials. The 3D scaffolds from regenerated biomaterials reduce the possibility of nonunion or asymmetric healing by improving cell delivery, elevating cellular support on fracture edges, and enhancing growth and regeneration in the fracture region.

In bone-tissue engineering, scaffold structures must be porous and of a composition purely identical to the bone HA provides stronger and more rapid bone tissue repair and can be considered as a preferable alternative to conventional bone grafting techniques (Angelin Jeba Kala & Asaithambi, 2018; Oberbek et al., 2018).

Avian eggshell, with mineral constituents highly resembling those of marine sponge, has found its way in orthognathic surgery as a potential bone-replacement material. Consequently, in recent years, extensive research has been conducted to improve the functioning power of HA. More recently, several reports have recommended the incorporation of hen or other avian eggshells in microparticle form on local delivery or hydrothermal basis with or without other bone grafting materials. Nevertheless, the findings were contradictory in terms of the quantity and quality of the bone generated (Srisubut et al., 2007; Lozano-Carrascal et al., 2017).

Dupoirieux et al. (2000) compared pericranium and eggshell as void fillers in the guided repair of bones and reported no sign of bone repair in any of the groups in the first 15 days. On day 30, they observed bone regeneration solely in the control group that had received no void filler. On day 90, complete bone regeneration occurred in 3-5 of the cases in the control group. There was no indication of osteogenic activity in the pericranium group, while in the third group, non-resorbable hen eggshell powder failed to express osteoconductive characteristics. In another investigation, Yadao et al. (2004) used ostrich eggshell as an implant and bone replacement graft to treat bone fracture on the floor of rabbit's orbit. They reported positive effects of this material on the healing process. Yadegari et al. (2015) based their study on the radiographic examination of the efficacy of hen eggshell powder on the healing of defected tibia bone in dogs. They reported an increase in bone density on days 30 and 60 that was associated with this material. Alternately, Park et al. (2008) assessed the bone repair process in rat calvaria using hen eggshell and compared the results with allograft transplantation in a cow. Findings underlined the potential characteristic of hen eggshell particles as a bone graft in the treatment of rat calvarial defect. Abdulrahman et al. (2014) perceived the high generating potential of HA and demonstrated how HA extraction from eggshell would prove to be cost-effective in terms of bone-repair costs. This is due to the low costs of extracting calcium carbonate from avian eggshell, its high accessibility, and its biodegradable nature as a primary material for bone grafting. Nevertheless, none of the studies specifically quantified the effect of these particles on improved local bone regeneration.

The natural bone matrix is made of bio-ceramics (i.e. HA) and polymers (i.e. collagen). Consequently, obtaining natural and synthetic biomaterials in the form of natural and synthetic polymers, compounds, and biological ceramic substances to produce bone scaffolds seems to be possible. Preparation of porous nano- and micro-fibers is amongst the most recent procedures (Rezwan et al., 2006). The effectiveness of tissue scaffolds has rendered µ-OES scaffolds worthy of consideration in improving bone healing. Exploring methods to accelerate healing is a crucial demand. With this background in mind, the present study experimentally investigated rat calvarial bone, while comparing the efficacy of µ-OES scaffolds and HA scaffolds in accelerating bone tissue repair.

Materials and Methods


Forty-five male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were used in this study. The rats were housed for two weeks at the facility for acclimatization. All animals were housed individually in light- and temperature-controlled facilities and were fed pellets specifically prepared for laboratory animals. In addition, these rats had free access to water during the study. This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the School of Veterinary Medicine, Semnan University (approval no. 43-17/7/96).

Surgical Procedure

The µ-OES composite was prepared according to the method described by Sanosh et al. in 2009 (6). The rats were anaesthetized intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of 10% ketamine hydrochloride (0.05 mL/100 g) and 5 mg/kg xylazine hydrochloride (0.025 mL/100 g).

The dorsal part of the cranium was shaved and disinfected. Surgical sites were exposed with a skin incision and the periosteum at the midline of the calvaria. After the calvarium was exposed, a 7 mm circular full-thickness bone defect was created using a trephine bur on the midline without damaging the underlying dura mater (Figure 1). All calvarial defects were trephined under irrigation with 0.9% saline solution. The animals were randomly divided into three groups with 15 animals per group for experimental periods of 14, 28, and 42 days.

In the HA and µ-OES groups, the defects were filled with HA and micro-particles of ostrich eggshell, respectively. The rats in the control group received no HA or µ-OES therapy. The soft tissues were sutured with 4-0 monofilament nylon to achieve primary closure. To prevent postoperative infection, cefazoline was administered to the animals as intramuscular injections for 3 days (30 mg/kg). Flunixin (Razak Co. Iran) as an analgesic was injected (2.5 mg/kg) intramuscularly.

Specimen Preparation and Histological Evaluation

Animals were euthanized with a lethal dose of thiopental (150 mg/kg), at post-operative periods of 14, 28, and 42 days. The skin was dissected and the area of the original surgical defect was removed en bloc with the surrounding tissues from the animals’ calvarium bone and was immediately submerged in 10% neutral buffered formalin for 48 h. Afterwards, it was rinsed with water and demineralized in 10% formic acid. Following decalcification, each specimen was divided longitudinally into two blocks in the sagittal direction and the blocks were embedded in paraffin. Serial sections were cut longitudinally beginning at the center of the surgical defect. The sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for analysis. In the histopathologic evaluation, the progression of bone defect healing was investigated in three regions, including two edges and the center of the defect in each sample. The levels of granulation tissue formation, fibrosis tissue, immature bone tissue, and adult ossification were evaluated to obtain healing rates in different samples. For each sample, three slides were prepared and each slide was investigated by two pathologists who were blind about the samples. Two edges and the central region of calvarial slides were studied by ×100 magnification of light microscope in three different fields for each region. Bone healing was scored according to Allen’s grading system (Deniza et al., 2015).