Document Type : Infectious agents- Diseases- Surgery
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiography, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, P.M.B. 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and type of indigestible foreign material impaction in small ruminants in Gombe State, Nigeria. Sampling was carried out between February 2019 and January 2020, systematic random sampling technique, ante-mortem examination of selected goats and sheep prior to slaughter at the major abattoirs in Gombe State. The sex, age and body condition score of each animal was observed and recorded accordingly. Post-mortem examination of the rumen and reticulum was performed and foreign materials recovered were removed from the abdominal cavity, identified and recorded. Out of 1730 small ruminants examined, 1167 (67.46%) were found to harbour various types of indigestible foreign materials in their rumen and reticulum. The prevalence was significantly (χ2 = 58.047, p < 0.0001) higher in goats (38.0%) compared to sheep (23.7%). Prevalence rates in respective LGA sampled from Gombe, Yamaltu Deba, Akko, Funakaye and Kwami LGAs was 13.6%, 12.9%, 12.1%, 11.8% and 11.4% respectively. The prevalence of indigestible foreign materials was found to be significantly (p< 0.0001; χ2 = 732.87; OR = 47.009) higher in adult (59.6%) compared to young (2.1%), significantly (p< 0.0001; χ2 = 637.61; OR = 31.145) higher in female (42.5%) compared to male (19.2%), higher in goats (χ2 = 177.03, p < 0.0001) and sheep (χ2 = 191.39, p < 0.0001) with poor body condition score compared to those with medium and good body condition Significantly higher proportions of indigestible foreign materials were recovered in the rumen of affected goats and sheep compared to their reticulum. Plastic was the most commonly encountered indigestible foreign materials in goats and in sheep, followed by seed/nuts, rope and cloth. Lack of adequate plastic waste disposal system, extensive management system and free grazing of livestock in urban area are among the predisposing factors to the high prevalence of indigestible foreign material in ruminants in the study area. It was therefore recommended that collaborative intervention schemes involving government’s agencies and livestock farmers are required to increase public awareness about how to properly dispose of domestic waste.