Effect of Germinated Barely and Earth Apple (Helianthus tuberosus) Powders in Some Physio-biological Indices of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.)

Document Type : Nutrition- Aquatic health and Culture


College of Veterinary Medicine/ University of Sulaimani/ Sulaimaniya/ Iraq


BACKGROUND: Germinated Barely and Earth Apple were used as a source of prebiotic to enhance fish health and welfare.

OBJECTIVES: The effect of adding different levels of both germinated barley and earth apple powders in Cypri-nus carpio diets was evaluated.

METHODS: First Diet (Control diet free of any additives), diets in treatments of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 with 2.5, 5, and 7.5 gr/kg diet of each of barley and earth apple powders respectively on an equivalent basis of protein.

RESULTS: T4 with 7.5 gr Earth apple was higher significantly (P≤0.05) in Gill index. T5 with 2.5 gr Barley was significantly higher (P≤0.05) in the Kidney index. Spleen somatic index was higher in all treatments except for T2 and T4. T2 and T5 were significantly higher in the Hepatosomatic index. Using germinated barely and earth apple powder in intestine indices either weight or length, the T7 with 7.5 gr Barley has more impact on the fish intestine. T3 with 5 gr Earth apple was higher significantly (P≤0.05) in each meat index in terms of Fish weight without viscera and Fish weight without viscera & head.

CONCLUSIONS: Earth Apple powder as a source of prebiotic enhances the health parameters in biological pa-rameters (P≤0.05).


Article Title [فارسی]

اثرات پودر جو جوانه زده و سیب زمینی برشاخص های فیزیوبیولوژی ماهی کپور

Author [فارسی]

  • نسرین محی الدین عبدالرحمن
دانشکده دامپزشکی،دانشگاه سلیمانیه،سلیمانیه ،عراق

Keywords [فارسی]

  • ماهی کپور
  • سیب زمینی
  • جو جوانه زده
  • شاخص های فیزیوبیولوژی



Carp is one of the most popular farmed fish in the world. Its breeding distribution in the world includes almost any region that is warm enough. Carp breeding in Asia is developing rapidly. Over the past two decades, production has grown by an average of 12% a year. Carp products more than 70% of aquaculture volume in Asia and the world and is considered the main source of fish protein production. Meanwhile, carp farming can play a decisive role in the prosperity of the communities' economy, and its breeding is of particular importance (Abilov et al., 2021)

Prebiotics are non-digestible food items that have beneficial effects like supporting the survival or continuation of probiotic strains, enhancing host mechanisms for protection, boosting tolerance to multiple health conditions, and complications with the human gastrointestinal tract. Prebiotics are carbohydrates, classifiable according to their molecular size or the number of saccharide units into monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, or polysaccharides. If the use of prebiotics leads to a clearer manifesting of health responses in fish, then prebiotics may be capable of enhancing the efficacy and sustainability of aquaculture production (Ringø et al., 2010).

Prebiotics are new functional food products consisting of oligosaccharides that may stimulate the development of the beneficial microorganism or probiotics known as soluble dietary fiber (Rastall, 2000). Prebiotics are one of the therapeutic substitutes, non-viable food ingredients that are fermented by probiotics or protective bacteria that resist digestion in the upper gut. In a study by Tuohy et al., prebiotics were characterized by their unique property of selective fermentation by bifidobacteria-/lactobacilli inside the gut micro-flora from other dietary fibers (2005). By encouraging bifidobacteria and/or lactobacilli colonies and increasing calcium and mineral absorption, prebiotics may enhance colon health (Gonzalez et al., 2020). Most prebiotics are the non-digestible oligosaccharides, i.e., galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO), xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS), soybean oligosaccharides (SOS), except for polysaccharide-inulin (Vernazza et al., 2006; Wichienchot et al., 2015).

Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) belonging to the family of Asteraceae, used commercially in the production of prebiotics, J. artichoke tuber contains 13%–18% carbohydrates, of which about 80% are inulin-type fructans, 10%–13% are sucrose, 3.5%–5% are reducing sugars, 10%–17% are proteins and 0.8%– 0.9% are important minerals including K, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Mg, Na, Cu and Mn (Barta and Pátkai 2007).

To expand the food industry and enhance host health, H. tuberosus fructo-oligosaccharides can have greater stability in developing probiotics and acids. It can be seen as a possible source of high-yielding oligosaccharides for commercial prebiotic development (Ali et al., 2016). H. tuberosus tubers primarily contain two carbohydrate forms, inulin, and sugar (fructose and glucose). They are functional foods that aim to provide more health benefits, as well as basic, which is the nutritional value in foods depending on the specialized products that may be their contribution to disease prevention or improving health or support the structure or function of the body (Agriculture & Agri-Food, 2015).

As a functional food ingredient, inulin is a fascinating compound from a bio-refinery point of view. It adds to the organoleptic properties of food, increases foam, emulsion consistency, and has fat-like characteristics when used as a gel in water. It has been shown that inulin and oligo-fructose stimulate the body's immune systems, increase calcium absorption, and reduce the content of triglycerides and fatty acids in the blood serum. It modulates insulin and glucagon hormone levels and reduces the occurrence of colon cancer (Johansson et al., 2015).

Germinated barley food items are a prebiotic substance derived from germinated barley aleurone and scutellum fractions and consist of insoluble protein rich in glutamine and dietary fiber. The study of Faghfoori et al., (2014) shows that GBF intake along with routine medicine in inflammation attenuates, efficient and healthy therapies and has a biological anti-inflammatory mechanism of GBF action. Using germinated barely and earth apple Helianthus tuberosus powders as a source of prebiotic were tested by the physiological indices in common carp Cyprinus carpio L.

Materials and Methods

Experimental Diet

Focused on the proximate composition of the food ingredients, seven groups of diets were prepared. First Diet (Control diet free of any additives), diets in treatments of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 with 2.5, 5, and 7.5 gr/kg diet of barley and earth apple powders respectively on an equivalent basis of protein.

Common carp: Aquariums were randomly assigned to C. carpio L. with an average weight of 34.71 gr from a fish farm situated in Kirkuk/ Iraq. (Seven fish/aquarium). Each treatment was represented in three aquaria (3 replicates/7 fish in each replicate).

Experimental system: The research facility consisted of 21 aquaria. (60 litter each). Aerated and dechlorinated tap water was supplied to each aquarium, stored in tanks for 24 hours, and aerated by air pumps (Model-Rina 301) during the experimental period. By incorporating new well-aerated fresh water, the water level was held to a set level for 12 weeks.

Physio- Biological Parameters

Fish samples were scarified and the stomach, and liver and other organs to be measured at once were soon opened for removal. The gonad and liver indices were calculated as follow according to Abdul-rahman et al., (2018):

Hepatosomatic index (HI) % = 100 x Liver weight (g)/body weight (gr)

Spleen somatic index (SI) = 100 x Spleen weight / body weight (gr)

Gill index (GI) = 100 x Gill weight / body weight (gr)

Kidney index (KI) = 100 x Kidney weight / body weight (gr)

Condition factor (K) = Fish weight/ Total length3

Intestine index% = 100 x Intestine weight (gr)/body weight (gr)

Intestine length index= 100 x Intestine length / body weight (gr)

Statistical Analysis

Statistical analyses were carried out using the two-way classification of the Analysis of variation (ANOVA) and the multiple Range Evaluation of Duncan, to determine variations between the means of treatment at the relevance rate of P-value < 0.05. The standard errors of treatment means were also estimated. All statistics were carried out using Statistical Analysis System (SAS program, 2004).


T4 with 7.5 gr Earth apple was higher significantly in Gill index, T5 with 2.5 gr Barley was significantly higher in Kidney index, Spleen somatic index was higher in all treatments except T2 and T4. T2 and T5 were significantly higher (P≤0.05) in Hepatosomatic index as shown in Table 1.



Table 1. Effect of adding germinated barely and earth apple powders in some physio-biological parameters of common carp


Gill index

Kidney index

Spleensomatic index

Hepatosomatic index




abc ± 0.210


d ±0.017


b ±0.045


bc ±0.173


2.5 g Earth apple


ab ±0.311


b ±0.079


a ±0.058


a ±0.156


5 g Earth apple


c ±0.146


cd ±0.028


b ±0.044


abc ±0.460


7.5 g Earth apple


a ± 0.206


bc ±0.011


a ±0.023


ab ±0.318


2.5 g Barley


abc ± 0.224


a ±0.027


ab ±0.045


a ±0.138


5 g Barley


bc ±0.023


b ±0.044


ab ±0.040


c ±0.018


7.5 g Barley


c ±0.185


b ±0.074


ab ±0.014


abc ±0.289

Means with same letters have different significant (P≥0.05).


Table 2 illustrates the effect of using germinated barely and earth apple powder in intestine indices either weight or length, the T7 with 7.5 gr Barley have the more effect on fish intestine. No significant differences (P≤0.05) occurred in condition factor.



Table 2. Effect of adding germinated barely and earth apple powders in condition factor, intestine length and weight index of common carp


Intestine length index

Intestine weight index

Condition factor



173.775 b ±1.900

4.197 b ± 0.088

1.592 a ± 0.047


2.5 g Earth apple

194.635 ab ± 6.252

3.509 b ± 0.238

1.509 a ± 0.091


5 g Earth apple

197.479 a ± 8.972

3.510 b ± 0.093

1.667 a ± 0.051


7.5 g Earth apple

199.589 a ± 9.934

4.513 ab ± 0.171

1.541 a ± 0.086


2.5 g Barley

200.000 a ± 0.000

3.744 b ± 0.053

1.576 a ± 0.045


5 g Barley

173.398 b ± 5.174

4.203 b ± 0.635

1.438 a ± 0.044


7.5 g Barley

215.445 a ± 2.573

5.256 a ± 0.359

1.607 a ± 0.113

Means with same letters have different significant (P≥0.05).



T3 with 5 gr Earth apple was higher significantly in each of meat index in term of Fish weight without viscera and Fish weight without viscera & head as mentioned in Table 3.



Table 3. Effect of adding germinated barely and earth apple powders in common carp meat index


Fish weight without viscera

Fish weight without viscera & head



81.854 b ± 1.233

51.486 bc ± 1.040


2.5 g Earth apple

79.320 d ± 0.167

50.445 c ± 0.486


5 g Earth apple

83.842 a ± 0.077

55.165 a ± 0.564


7.5 g Earth apple

79.595 cd ± 0.464

51.038 c ± 1.118


2.5 g Barley

78.593 d ± 0.385

54.235 ab ± 2.448


5 g Barley

81.568 bc ± 0.663

50.641 c ± 0.367


7.5 g Barley

80.341 bcd ± 0.753

50.937 c ± 1.150

Means with same letters have different significant (P≥ 0.05).



The study of Soleimani et al., (2012) and Abdulrahman and Ahmed, (2016) showed that adding of Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) to Caspian roach Rutilus rutilus and common carp could modulate the innate immune responses. Stimulation of the growth of beneficial bacteria can be due to the immunostimulatory nature of prebiotics such as lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp., which possess cell wall components such as lipopolysaccharides that have immunostimulatory properties (Zhang et al., 2011). The encouraging outcomes of rainbow trout growth and biochemical tests and favorable feed conversion mean that testing higher concentrations of the ProfeedR prebiotic substance would be worthwhile used by Řehulka et al., (2011).

These results are due to the presence of a high-content earth apple of the inulin and FOS (Fructooligosaccharides), which improves growth perfor-mance and enhances the immune response by modifying the social formation of the enteric flora in favor of beneficial bacteria through the creation of the appropriate environment and the basis for the growth and reproduction of beneficial bacteria (Iraporda et al., 2019). Inulin is a functional food with varying properties, and its effect appears stable and increases with increasing doses. The change caused by prebiotic may be from the enhancement and domination of beneficial organisms of bacteria lactobacilli or bifidobacterium that have rivaled harmful microorganisms over place and food or have reduced their metabolic processes by stimulating the non-specific immune response of the host (Jirayucharoensak et al., 2018).

Based on the results of Sleman et al. (2021), supplementation of Chlorella and germinated barley in diet can affect some blood and biochemical parameters. Their results revealed that adding algae Chlorella and germinated powder in the fourth treatment significantly affects hemoglobin and red blood corpuscles. A significant difference observed in the Hepatosomatic and Gillsomatic indices, T5 with 20 % germinated barely, was significantly different in each of Spleen somatic and Kidney somatic, so Chlorella can be considered a good choice a supplement and additive for fish diets. Because of high crude protein levels, it possesses a significant concentration of polysaccharides, lipids, minerals, and other bioactive components involved in many physiological activities.

In a study in Iraq about using of prebiotics and their sources in fish, Al-Asha'ab et al. (2014) compared Iraqi probiotics and FOS in common carp. They found significant differences for T5 (P≤0.05) in growth parameter, food conversion, feed efficiency ratio, and apparent coefficient digestibility ACD. Taher et al. (2018) used bay laurel's (Laurus nobilis) leaf extract as a source of prebiotic. According to their results, the better results were achieved by T2, where 2% of laurel leaf extract was added to fish food. Abedalhammed et al. (2020) added Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) powder and Sprout Germinated Barley powder to diets of young common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio L.) to detect the effect on their growth. The feed utilization criteria significantly outperformed both the third treatment, 7.5 gr/kg Jerusalem and the sixth treatment, 7.5 gr/kg, for FER, PER, and FCR; the same treatments recorded the best ratios for feed transfer significantly on all transactions. At the same time, the worst one was the control significantly for all treatments and all criteria.


I would like Dr. Hazem Sabri for his helping, also thanks to dear M. Pola, Dr. Hemin Nuraddin, M. Hawkar, M. Vian, finally thanks to the university of Sulaimani/ College of veterinary medicine and college of agricultural sciences.

Conflict of Interest

The author declared no conflict of interest for publishing this article.







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